Mudcat Café message #4002269 The Mudcat Café TM
Thread #166434   Message #4002269
Posted By: Iains
27-Jul-19 - 06:50 AM
Thread Name: Persians
Subject: RE: Persians
One of the little-known chapters of history was the widespread famine in Iran during World War I, caused by the British presence in Iran...",

This quote carefully overlooks the following:
1) Drought is a recurrent problem in the Middle East
https://www.pnas.org/content/109/10/3862
2)The Great Persian famine of 1870–1872 was a period of mass starvation and disease in Persia. This occurred with no outside interference,
Xavier de Planhol comments that the famine was a result of "combined climatic catastrophes made worse by poor administration and the human factors".
Shoko Okazaki maintains that the two consecutive years of severe drought was the principal factor and rejects that the increase in production of opium and cotton contributed to the famine. He also blames "senior bureaucrats, landlords, grain dealers and high-ranking religious officials who engaged in hoarding and market manipulation". Cormac Ó Gráda endorses the latter reason

3) The conributary factors to the 1917-1919 famine are:
a)Drought
b)) Russian troops blockaded all the roads in the north-east province of Khorasan, prohibiting any transfers of grain, except those destined for the Russian army
c)The he total granary of the south-east province of Sistan was sold off to the British troops
d)The requisitioning of pack animals, mules and camels for the oil industry in Khuzestan, and for the British and Russian armed forces, left the country's transport network in serious disarray, and disrupted the distribution of foodstuffs and other goods throughout the country – with disastrous consequences.
e) Abbas Milani. Abrahamian describes calling the famine a genocide as "wild accusation" and attributes the vast majority of the 2 million deaths he estimates to cholera and typhus epidemics, as well as mostly the worldwide influenza pandemic.
The topic is as yet under researched and to isolate anyone factor, apart from drought, as being dominant is hard to both justify and quantify.

Iran has struggled with chronic drought for over a decade, and it is currently estimated that 97 percent of the country is experiencing drought conditions. Iran is in the midst of a full-blown water crisis, and the shortages are among the factors leading to widespread unrest in Iranian society.Aug 7, 2018